Quebec City

Quebec City
   Founded by Champlain (q.v.), in 1608. Seventy-three years earlier, Jacques Cartier had sailed up the great river, and landed near the same spot, wintering in a creek not far from the native town of Stadaconé. Champlain, in 1608, built a rude fort, the Abitation de Québec, and a warehouse. There he and his men spent the winter, but before succour arrived in the spring, most Of them died of scurvy. Had a man of less courage and resourcefulness been in Command, the infant settlement of Quebec might have died a natural death. Champlain kept it alive, and, though harassed by enemies, and neglected by the motherland, the town grew steadily from the year of its birth. Quebec has passed through five sieges, that of Kirke in 1629, that of Phipps, 1690, the great siege of 1759, Lévis's siege of 1760, and that of Montgomery and Arnold, 1775-1776.
   Index: Bk The centre of society in Canada, 46; defective state of fortifications, 75; defences of in early years of nineteenth century, 89, 90, 94. Sy Charter of, reëstablished, 255; change in electoral limits of, 285; two members assigned to, 285. L Church erected at, 84; placed under patronage of Immaculate Conception and St. Louis, 85; not less pious as a community than Montreal, 92; conflagration at, 186; siege of, by expedition under Phipps, 229-231. B Brown's objection to, as seat of government, 70; gross election frauds in 1857, 99; fortifications of, to be completed by England, 186. Dr Carleton's report on fortifications of, 44; fortifications of, improved by Cramahé, 117; attack by Montgomery and Arnold on, repulsed, 125-131; garrison of, greatly encouraged, 133; gayety in, during winter of 1776-1777, 162; unreasonable demands of British inhabitants of, 252, 253. F Foundations of, 7; capture of, by Kirke, 20; restored to France, 23; population of city in 1666, 56; first ball given at, 59; sea expedition planned against, by New Englanders, 268-277; defences strengthened, 284; attack by squadron under Phipps, 285-300; defences further strengthened, 326. E Seat of government at, 78; Lord Elgin's references to, in his farewell address, 205-206. WM In 1756, description of, 15; Wolfe's plan for attacking, 76; fortifications afforded no protection, 79; batteries at, 95; batteries of, have no effect against enemy's works at Pointe Lévis, 113; discouragement of inhabitants, 113; general exodus from, 115; bombardment of, 115; thieves pillage the houses, 122; pitiable condition of, 160; abandoned by the enemy, the citizens call for capitulation, 224; garrison of, disorganized, 230; capitulation of, 230-235; rejoicing in England over fall of, 238; Vaudreuil maintains spies in, 243; sickness in British garrison of, 243. Ch Fortifications of, 157; slow progress of settlement at, 167; terms of capitulation of, 190-192; keys of, handed to Lewis Kirke, 195; English flag hoisted over, 196; names of families remaining at, after surrender, 196; passes again under French rule, 224; population in 1629, 208; destructive fire at, 1640, 241. BL Boundaries of, for political purposes changed by Sydenham, restored in 1842, 146; aspires to honour of capital, 181; seat of government, 338. Md Shares with Toronto the honour of seat of government, for sixteen years, 39; dispute over capital, 77; dissatisfaction of, over selection of Ottawa as capital, 85; conference on Confederation meets at, in 1864, 104-105. Hd Besieged by Wolfe, 25; news arrives of surrender of, 29; defended by Murray, 34; Murray lieutenant-governor of, 41; roads to, 45, 46; uses St. Maurice forges, 47; government of, 49; enlistment of French-Canadians in, 55-56; Haldimand arrives at, 117; Indians brought to, 152; fortifications of, strengthened, 183; prisons in, 187; threatened by French fleet, 188; census of, taken, 190; old customs of, 192, 221-224; Riedesels at, 220, 300-304; education in, 233-235; food supply of, 239; Nelson at, 244; rebel sympathizers in, 279; Du Calvet in, 286, 287; Haldimand's life in, 298; Haldimand sails from, 310; Haldimand Hill in, named after him, 346.
   Bib.: Doughty, Cradle of New France; Le Moine, Historical Notes on Quebec; MacPherson, Reminiscences of Old Quebec; Hawkins, Picture of Quebec; Douglas, Old France in the New World; Le Moine, Quebec Past and Present; Parker, Old Quebec.

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